• Ground arthropods distribution was compared at the local and regional scales.
• Beta-diversity finds distinct communities at the regional but not local scales.
• Turnover contributed more than nestedness of all arthropods at multiple scales.
• Spatial variables were important regulators at the local scale.
• Spatially structured environmental factors contributed most at regional scale.
Understanding the factors determining the formation of each community and metacommunity across a landscape is one of the most important ideas in soil animal ecology. However, the variables and parameters that shape soil arthropod communities in agroecosystems have not been resolved. These arthropods can serve as important bioindicators of field management and its sustainability. We sampled five corn plantations in each of three locations across a region spanning 600 km to come up with these determinants of the community structure of ground-dwelling spiders (Erigoninae: Araneae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The analysis of the five fields within each of the three locations represent our local-scale samples, while the comparisons of the 15 sites across all three locations represent the regional scale samples. We tested the hypothesis that in the models we sampled, environmental/soil variables would drive community assembly locally (within location comparisons), but at the regional scale (between location comparisons), climatic and spatial variables would drive metacommunity assembly. The outcomes of our study showed distinct communities at each of the three locations when compared across regions but locally, fields were similar in species composition, as expected. Locally, spatial variables were important but not soil variables, regulated species richness and abundance. Turnover contributed more than nestedness to explain the biodiversity of spiders, carabids, and ants at both the local and regional scales. Neither purely climate variables, nor purely soil or spatial variables were significant enough explanations for the regional scale arthropod community composition. However, spatially structured environmental factors contributed most to explain the patterns supporting our hypothesis. We conclude that biodiversity in this agroecosystem area can be promoted by a mosaic of land uses being encouraged to increase landscape complexity at the regional scale.